The experiment of hard steel of temper by dipping in water of milling of milling cutter of head of small diameter ball studies
- source:YESCOM CNC Machining
The milling cutter of head of ball of TiAlCN coating hard alloy of 5mm provides steel to undertake to die of S136 temper by dipping in water in experiment of cutting of high speed dry type, the influence of speed of the cutting when analysing milling of hard steel of temper by dipping in water, feed speed and cutting deepness to cutting force the rule, analysed different cutting dosage to be opposite the influence of the vibration of milling process and noise, the principle that advanced parameter of logical choice cutting and improvement machine the way of process stability. The outspread rate of hard steel of 1 foreword temper by dipping in water small, plasticity is low, form Gao Guangjie to machine the surface easily, these good performance make its receive wide application in mould industry. But classics quench or microtherm goes after stress anneal itself hardness is tall (50 ～ 65HRC) , cutting processability is poor, in process of high speed milling cutting tool wears away, damaged is very serious. In finish machining of hard steel of temper by dipping in water, the round dambered surface that is like radius of small-sized mould, curvature, clear root, small diameter cutting tool is indispensable. The treatment of small diameter milling cutter and common establishing milling cutter to machine is the distinction on dimension not merely, because cutting tool diameter is small, arbor force and oscillatory little change may cause cutting tool damage, the research that because this hard to temper by dipping in water data is little,diametical milling cutter machines raised a requirement. Home machines the cutting mechanism of hard steel of temper by dipping in water to consider to still be in initial exploration phase to high speed, the research that milling of hard steel of temper by dipping in water machines is less, the key is turning, aim to be ground with car generation, basically begin research of experiment of cutting of hard steel of temper by dipping in water to cutting tool of pottery and porcelain, PCBN cutting tool and coating cutting tool. Abroad a few person the possibility that high speed of strong to temper by dipping in water pattern machines undertook study, study to mechanism of strong voice cutting the current situation did the summary that compares a system. From domestic and international scholar to the research of mechanism of cutting of hard steel of temper by dipping in water the respect looks, the choice of material of coating of feature of force of the cutting in basically studying the object is cutting process, cutting tool, cut bits to form mechanism, cutting tool to wear away, the respect such as life of the damaged mechanism, surface quality that already machined, cutting tool. But the experiment that the conclusion of earning is confined to linear cutting mostly (this experiment also is linear grooving) , and use the cutting tool of diametical 8mm above more. Elbestawi is with the diameter 12.
The tall CBN content of 7mm (rolled steel of tool of H13 of treatment of 90% ) milling cutter expects (45HRC and 55HRC) , consider to make clear, below the case that surpasses high speed cutting, the extent of average cutting force decreases, of stuff of the metal in its essence and cutting process be out of shape, cut bits and cutting tool, cutting tool and already machined the attrition between the surface closely related. The point of view that also a lot of scholars are affected to workpiece material plasticity from cutting temperature will explain this, the main reason that thinks to raise cutting speed to make cutting force drops is cutting temperature lifts make workpiece plasticity increases. A lot of phenomena in cutting process if of cutting tool wear away, direct or indirect the earth's surface shows the exterior treatment quality of damaged and workpiece on the change in vibration of cutting force and treatment system. Accordingly, signal of cutting force, oscillatory, noise is the important information that processes a process, to its the analysis considers to be helpful for optimizing cutting parameter. The article is right already the treatment mechanism of hard steel of temper by dipping in water of milling of medium, high speed and treatment craft undertook milling cutter of hard alloy of small diameter coating the abecedarian is discussed, obtained a few optimized cutting parameter, this job still is in further research. The article basically is passed use small diameter (&@216;1.
Milling cutter of head of ball of 5mm)TiAlCN coating hard alloy provides steel to undertake to die of S136 temper by dipping in water in experiment of cutting of high speed dry type, speed of the cutting when analysing milling cutter of small diameter coating to do hard steel of type cutting temper by dipping in water, feed speed and cutting deepness are force, oscillatory to cutting the influence rule with noise, the reasonable cutting requirement that raises small diameter milling cutter to do type cutting to process hard steel of temper by dipping in water thereby and the treatment that improve treatment process stability are politic, for next cutting tool tatty research provides a basis, the actual production that processes hard steel of temper by dipping in water to small diameter milling cutter at the same time has certain direct sense. Express steel of mould of S136 of test specimen of 1 experiment condition (better corrosion resistance can, use at making high accuracy plastic pattern provide) , quench add a heat treatment, hardness amounts to 57HRC, chemical composition: C 0.
38% , cr 13.
6% , mn0.
5% , v0.
3% , si0.
STANAØ1 of 8% milling cutter.
5mmCutting of dry type of condition of cutting of machining center of milling of YCM-V85A of machine tool of milling cutter of head of two blade ball vertical measures TiAlCN coating the instrument YD-1 type that suppress report measures force transducer; DHF-6A charge amplifier; ND2 exact sound level plan reach filter of times frequency Cheng; QLV muti_function instrument for analysis of fictitious type signal changes Fz=0 of feed of every tine of Vf(mm/min)1734516885102 of speed of feed of N(r/min)106221233185424653086369 of rotate speed of main shaft of Vc(m/min) 51015202530 of speed of cutting of parameter of cutting speed experiment when chamfer of mill of milling cutter of 2 balls head.
008mm/z, axial cuts deep Ad=0.
05mm2 experiments 2.
Experiment of 1 experiment condition uses only factor method, study Fz (mm/ of feed of cutting speed Vc(m/min) , every tine ages respectively) , axial cuts deep Rd(mm) the influence rule of force, oscillatory to cutting, noise. Test system signal. If experiment condition is expressed 1. 2.
Every tine feed and axial cut rate of cutting of the change when chamfer of mill of 2 experiments parameter deep constant, change cutting rate, inspect cutting speed to change the influence of force, oscillatory to cutting, noise. If adoption experimental parameter expresses 2 to show. Because process of chamfer of mill of ball head milling cutter is medium, speed of the biggest cutting and the distance that cutting nods upright ministry are concerned, the cutting speed that gives out in the watch all points to the linear velocity on cutting tool side edge. Speed of cutting of rate of feed of the change when mill chamfer and axial are cut deep constant, change feed rate, inspect feed speed to change the influence of force, oscillatory to cutting, noise. If adoption experimental parameter expresses 3 not. Axial of the change when mill chamfer cuts deep cutting speed and feed rate constant, change axial is cut deep, inspect axial to cut profound change the influence of force, oscillatory to cutting, noise. If adoption experiment parameter expresses 4 to show. Express chamfer of mill of milling cutter of 3 balls head to change Fz(mm/z) 0 of parameter of feed speed experiment.
012Vfmm/min)21426485106127n=6369r/min, vf=102mm/min, cut cut a Vf=32mm/min to express chamfer of mill of milling cutter of 4 balls head to change Ad(mm) 0 of parameter of cutting deepness experiment.
Fz=0 of feed of 06 every tine.
008mm/z, axial cuts deep Ad=0.
05mm3 test result and discuss 3.
The each cutting component of force that the influence cutting force of 1 cutting speed and process of experiment of cutting velocity relationship gain is original signal (differentiate to facilitate when the test each signal, set this mortal world to lose a value, the following and identical) , the force this mortal world of axial of cutting tool of the edge when chamfer of mill of ball head milling cutter is the greatest, the force that is perpendicular feed direction next altogethers, the force this mortal world of feed direction is the smallest. Make cutting force and cutting speed-distance curve according to the average of each force. Can see, inside chooses speed limits, because rate is minor, the change of cutting force is not big, cutting speed is not remarkable to the influence of cutting force. No matter axial force Fz is average or metabolic extent compare additionally two direction big, because this reduces Fz import great. The reason with axial force big Fz basically is surface of cutting procedure treatment perpendicular Yu Dao has spool thread, in ball head top actual cutting speed is 0, workpiece suffers extruding force effect, the direction of this force and Fz are identical; At the same time the cutting force of other place also is met because of the influence of ball head structure very large component of force arises in axes direction. To reduce Fz, can improve cutting tool composition, there is the top of head of meaning general ball when production cutting tool inside end sunken certain deepness, but the complexity that can increase cutting tool to make; It is certain to also can make in machining a process cutting tool and workpiece tilt additionally angle (avoid mutual and perpendicular) , avoid to use cutting speed to be machined for the ball head top of 0, this method makes machine an environment to get definite improvement, but the difficult rate that raised process designing, and cutting tool is interfered easily with workpiece happening. The signal of cutting process vibration that the cutting speed influence watch to vibration gets below 2 experiments condition reachs its power table, oscillatory frequency basically distributings to be mixed in low frequency intermediate frequency paragraph (73.
24Hz and IO69.
Near 34Hz) . As rotate speed rise, the power of low frequency part is reduced, power of intermediate frequency component increases; When rotate speed is more than 4246r/min, the power that intermediate frequency is in is more than low frequency apparently, but addition strength is not great, and frequency of oscillatory the highest peak in a mountain range distributings to be stabilized relatively, the specification is inside test range, cutting rate is not old to the influence of systematic stability, this also shows will improve productivity through raising cutting rate is feasible. The noise signal that the cutting speed influence to noise signal issues to analyse different rotate speed, before cutting work to cutting tool respectively, mix the noise in the cutting process that expresses 2 experiments condition to fall undertook detecting, gain a fair amount of confidence of power of the noise below each rotate speed. The noise power table of cutting speed is changed when mill chamfer. Frequency of the highest peak in a mountain range is 58.
The music of low frequency part of 59Hz is worth the relation with cutting speed; When cutting tool did not cut work, all contain frequency to be worth below all rotate speed for 58.
The component of the highest peak in a mountain range of 59Hz, and value of chart of this the highest peak in a mountain range is when N=4246r/min power is the greatest. To the power chart of noise signal the analysis makes clear: The frequency component that the noise in cutting process includes and metabolic rule and when was not being cut basic and identical, noise basically rotates by main shaft generation, concern with rotate speed; N=4246r/min is a turning point of the machine tool, the low frequency noise below this rotate speed is apparently strong at other rotate speed, and begin to appear high frequency composition; As the addition of rotate speed, the high frequency composition in signal is strengthened subsequently. When N=5308r/min, 3193.
The amplitude of noise power chart that 36Hz is in increases for 24.
76, and low frequency is abate; When N=6369r/min, 117, 673, 3925, 7646Hz all has corresponding peak value, but chart of low frequency, high frequency noise is worth all abate. From reduce noise consideration, this treatment system uses the rotate speed under 4246r/min or prep above 6369r/min relatively advantageous. Above experiment makes clear: When cutting speed Vc=30m/min, besides noise signal, different rotate speed causes detect signal (cutting force, oscillatory) do not have apparent difference. When choosing cutting career, consider the noise impact to operating personnel, can use the rotate speed under 4246r/min; From rise efficiency and reduce noise to consider, can use 6369r/min or higher rotate speed. 3.
When the influence cutting force of 2 feed speed and force of cutting of feed velocity relationship and curve of feed velocity relationship and experiment of change milling rate similar, fz is in the cutting power on 3 direction is the greatest, fx take second place, fy is the smallest. The average change rule of each direction force, change of cutting force Fx, Fy is not big, increase somewhat nevertheless; Under photograph comparing, change of every of cutting component of force is more apparent, show ascendant trend. Feed speed expresses the oscillatory power a fair amount of confidence below 3 experiments condition to the influence of oscillatory signal. Can see, value of the highest peak in a mountain range of oscillatory power chart basically distributings in 3017.
The frequency under 58Hz paragraph, high frequency paragraph appear without oscillatory peak value, and as feed speed rise, the highest peak in a mountain range of oscillatory power chart has reach sign. The amplitude of chart of frequency place power that appears according to making main peak value and feed rate change concern. Can see, in low frequency paragraph (87.
56The amplitude that the highest peak in a mountain range of Hz) each vibration is in is along with the accretion of every tine feed change on the whole very small, in intermediate frequency paragraph (1064.
23Hz) , maximum appears around 106mm/min of ～ of feed speed Vf=85. When be being machined so, should keep away from as far as possible this limits. High frequency paragraph amplitude is reduce along with the accretion of every tine feed. Feed speed expresses frequency of 5 the biggest the highest peak in a mountain range to the influence of noise signal 1064.
45Hz cuts the Ad0 of power chart amplitude that falls greatly in each axial.
06 chart are worth 0.
The 4 noise power a fair amount of confidence that express 3 experiments condition to fall. Can see, frequency basically distributings in low frequency 58.
59Hz, intermediate frequency 3193.
36Hz and high frequency 6357.
42Hz place. The power chart of each the highest peak in a mountain range is worth, make clear the addition of feed speed, change of amplitude of noise power chart is not big, low frequency and the chart cost that intermediate frequency manages just are inside a very little scope change; The amplitude of high frequency place is 85m/min in feed speed from time to tome peak value, but change is not big, overall will tell, noise power chart is stabler. As feed speed rise, force of cutting of direction of X, Y, Z all has increase, noise change is not big, vibration increases subsequently, vibration and noise maximum appear in feed speed Vf=85 near ～ 106mm/min. Integrated consideration, with Fz<0.
006mm/z is relatively the feed limits of beautiful. 3.
The influence cutting force of 3 axial deepness and axial cut the signal of each cutting component of force that measures in difficult relation cutting process, show axial deepness increases, cutting force rises very remarkable, when Ad=0.
When 06mm, because cutting force crosses big cutting tool to be broken off, right now the maximum of Fx of cutting component of force, Fy and Fz is 255N respectively, - 539N, 145ON. Take average to cutting force to each, attainable curve. Show change axial is cut deep when not big to influence of radial load Fx, and axial force Fz and feed force Fy increase very fast, especially Z direction, fy and Fz are the main reason that causes cutting tool to break off. In applying actually for cutting tool safety, axial cuts deep Ad to should be less than 0.
04mm. Axial is cut express the oscillatory power a fair amount of confidence that measures below 4 experiments condition greatly to the influence of oscillatory signal. Cut the power chart plan that lays greatly to be informed according to each axial, the biggest the highest peak in a mountain range all is in frequency IO64.
45Hz place, corresponding each chart value sees a table 5, by the watch 5 knowable, cut deep addition as axial, vibration increases, when Ad=0.
055 when reach maximum. Axial is cut express the noise power a fair amount of confidence that measures below 4 experiments condition greatly to the influence of noise signal. Can see, as the addition of cutting deepness, noise power chart is in high frequency 7646.
The noise the highest peak in a mountain range that 48Hz manages disappears, the biggest the highest peak in a mountain range all is in noise power chart 3808.
59H, place, when Ad=0.
045mm is achieved the biggest, later the addition as cutting deepness, noise is reduced. The experiment shows the axial when mill chamfer cuts ball head milling cutter to be opposite greatly cutting power influence is remarkable, when undertaking numerical control process designing, should notice to prevent to be cut greatly in order to pass deep undertake machining, the surplus that can use software of a few CAM to offer analyses a function, reduce the odds of this kind of phenomenon happening effectively. Axial is cut deep raise fixed cost, oscillatory, noise is achieved the biggest, decrease later. To make sure cutting tool is safe, the axial when mill chamfer is cut answer greatly be less than 0.
04mm. 4 epilogue are using hard steel of temper by dipping in water of milling of milling cutter of head of small diameter ball (mill chamfer) when, cutting parameter is ordinal to the influence size of cutting force for: Feed of axial deepness, every tine and cutting speed; The Fz in cutting component of force is the biggest, because actual cutting speed is top of ball head milling cutter,this basically is 0, make workpiece suffers extruding force effect particularly big. When changing cutting rate, inside test range, cutting rate is not old to the influence of stability of cutting force, system, improve productivity it is thus clear that through raising cutting rate is feasible. Inside test range, from rise efficiency and reduce noise to consider to be able to use 6369r/min or higher rotate speed. As feed speed rise, force of cutting of direction of X, Y, Z all has increase, noise change is not big, vibration increases subsequently. The vibration in this experiment and noise maximum appear around 106mm/min of ～ of feed speed Vf=85. Integrated consideration, with Fz<0.
006mm/z, for relatively the feed limits of beautiful. The axial when mill chamfer cuts ball head milling cutter to be opposite greatly cutting power influence is remarkable, axial is cut deep raise fixed cost, cutting force adds apparently, and oscillatory, noise reachs maximum, decrease later. To make sure cutting tool is safe, next axial cut this treatment condition to answer greatly be less than 0.