Rivets: A Versatile and Durable Fastening Solution(thermoplastic Kay)
- source:YESCOM CNC Machining
In this article, we'll explore the versatility and durability of rivets and examine their many uses across industries. We'll look at how rivets work, the different types available, and best practices for rivet selection and installation. With a rich history and ongoing utility, the rivet remains one of the most ubiquitous and dependable fasteners ever invented.
How Rivets Work
A rivet is a mechanical fastener that consists of two main parts - a smooth cylindrical shaft and a head. The shaft is inserted into holes drilled in the materials being joined. The rivet is then deformed to create a second head, sandwiching the materials together. This process is called riveting.
The deformation process expands the rivet, causing it to fill the holes completely. This creates a tight fit and forms a small "shop head" that holds the materials together. The strength and integrity of the joint depend on the rivet body completely filling the holes.
When installed correctly, the compressed rivet exerts force outward on the materials, keeping them firmly united even when subjected to vibration, stress, or torque. This is what makes riveting such a reliable joining method.
Common Types of Rivets
There are several types of rivets used for different applications:
- Solid/Blind Rivets: These have a pre-formed head on one end and are deformed on the other end after insertion. No access to the back side is needed for installation.
- Split Rivets: These have a pre-formed head and a split shaft. As the tail end is deformed, the shaft splits open. This creates a wider shop head for greater strength.
- Drive Rivets: These have no pre-formed head. Both ends are deformed during installation for very strong joints. Access to both sides of the work is required.
- Structural Rivets: Used for critical structural applications like bridges, these are high-strength rivets designed to withstand substantial loads.
- Self-Piercing Rivets: As the name implies, these cut their own hole before deforming to join sheet materials. No drilling is necessary.
- Semi-Tubular Rivets: These have a partial hollow shaft that makes them lighter while retaining strength. Used extensively in aircraft.
The materials used for rivets also vary based on the application and demands:
- Aluminum - Lightweight and corrosion resistant, a go-to choice for aircraft and marine applications. Easy to cut and deform.
- Steel - Very strong but heavier than aluminum. Used for high-stress applications like construction equipment. Prone to corrosion.
- Stainless Steel - Added corrosion resistance for harsh environments like chemical plants or marine hardware. More expensive than regular steel.
- Monel - A nickel alloy that offers strength, corrosion resistance, and compatibility with many corrosive materials. Common in chemical processing industry.
- Copper - Used for electronics and electrical applications because it is conductive. Also often used for decorative riveting.
- Plastic/Nylon - Lightweight and inexpensive, these are used for non-critical commercial and consumer applications.
Key Uses of Rivets
Thanks to their versatility, rivets have thousands of applications across many industries. Some of the most prominent uses include:
Aircraft and Aerospace
Rivets are the fastener of choice for airframe assembly. Aluminum and specialty rivets are used to join fuselage skins, wings, engine nacelles, control surfaces, and flight control components. Riveting provides the reliability and structural integrity critical for airworthiness.
Rivets securely fasten door skins, hoods, trunk lids, bumpers, trim pieces, wheels, and frames in car and truck assembly. Their vibration resistance prevents rattles and noise. Self-piercing rivets allow high-speed automation.
The outer shells of appliances like dishwashers, refrigerators, dryers and ovens are commonly joined with rivets. They provide durable fastening that won't loosen despite vibration during operation and transportation. Stainless rivets withstand moisture and heat.
Small stainless or nylon rivets assemble enclosures for computers, mobile devices, control panels, and measurement equipment. Copper rivets provide grounding as well as fastening in circuit boards and electrical devices.
Infrastructure and Architecture
Large structural rivets are extensively used in the construction of bridges, transmission towers, platforms, rail cars, shipping containers, and architectural features. Their strength secures critical structural connections.
Heavy equipment for agriculture, mining, oil drilling, forestry, and construction relies on large steel rivets to endure incredible shock, vibration, and loading forces. Rivets offer reliable fastening for long service life.
Best Practices for Riveting
To gain the full strength and longevity advantages of riveting, proper installation procedures must be followed:
- Drilled holes must be sized correctly to match the rivet diameter. Loose or too-tight holes will compromise strength.
- Hole edges should be free of burrs or dents which can weaken the joint. Deburring may be required.
- Rivet length should be matched to material thickness. Too short leaves a weak connection while too long can split materials.
- Joins should be accessible to allow rivet forming on both ends for maximum integrity.
- Use the appropriate rivet style for the materials and application needs.
- Apply the correct pressure for uniform rivet deformation without damage.
- Make sure rivet heads seat flush against materials with no gaps.
Well-installed rivets form very tight joints that resist vibration, shock, and fatigue stresses. They can last for decades even in extreme environments. Following proper procedures is key to maximizing rivet life and performance.
The Next Generation of Fastening
While rivets have proven their merits through centuries of use, new fastening technologies offer lighter, faster, and lower-cost alternatives in some applications:
- Adhesives like epoxy provide strong monocoque bonding without holes or hardware. Used extensively in aircraft.
- Welding efficiently fuses materials without added weight. Automation makes it feasible for high-volume production.
- Quick-locking fasteners like quarter-turn Dzus style save installation time compared to conventional bolts.
- Lightweight composite materials enable large monolithic parts eliminating joints altogether. Used heavily in aerospace and automotive.
- Metal 3D printing can produce finished assemblies already fused together without fasteners.
Despite advances in bonding, welding, and additive manufacturing, the simplicity and reliability of the rivet make it difficult to displace completely. This primitive but profoundly useful fastener still has a bright future ahead. From envelopes and eyeglasses to oceangoing tankers and rockets, rivets will continue putting things together and holding them there - just as they have for thousands of years. They remain a tried-and-true choice for designers, engineers, and manufacturers across industries and applications. CNC Milling CNC Machining