Riveting in Sheet Metal Fabrication(63 finish Athena)
- source:YESCOM CNC Machining
What is a Rivet?
A rivet is a mechanical fastener with a head on one end, a shank, and a second head formed on the other end during installation. The most common types of rivets are:
- Solid/Blind Rivets - Tubular metal rivets that are inserted into pre-drilled holes. The rivet's tail is then upset, forming the second head. These are used in blind locations where only one side is accessible.
- Semi-Tubular Rivets - Hollow rivets with a partial hole. The rivet flares out to form the second head during installation. Provides greater strength than solid rivets.
- Structural Rivets - Used for critical structural joints. They have large head-to-shank proportions and are very resistant to fatigue.
- Drive Screw Rivets - These pierce and form a head on the second side, eliminating the need for pre-drilling. Ideal for softer materials.
The most common materials used for rivets are aluminum, steel, stainless steel, copper, and Monel (nickel-copper alloy). Selection depends on the materials being joined and strength/corrosion requirements. Softer rivet materials like aluminum are preferred for brittle materials like cast iron to prevent cracking. Harder materials like steel and Monel provide greater shear strength.
Rivet Joint Design
Properly designed rivet joints require:
- Sufficient material overlap to transfer load between parts
- Proper edge distances for rivet spacing and row placement
- Correct rivet diameter in relation to material thickness
- Appropriate rivet spacing between rivets within a row
The ratio of material thickness to rivet diameter generally ranges from 1.5-3.0. Minimum edge distances are typically 2-3x the rivet diameter. Rivet spacing in the direction of applied load is critical, with typical spacing between 2-4x the rivet diameter. Row spacing is usually ~4x the rivet diameter.
Riveting sheet metal components involves three main steps:
1. Hole Preparation - Holes are drilled or punched through the materials to be joined. Hole diameter should match the rivet diameter. Deburring is needed to ensure proper rivet seating.
2. Rivet Insertion - The rivet shank is inserted into the aligned holes. Rivets come in various lengths to accommodate different material stackups.
3. Rivet Setting - The rivet is compressed using a riveting hammer, press, or squeezer. This expands the tail, forming the second head and clamping the materials together.
Hand Riveting Tools
Manual riveting relies on simple hand tools like:
- Riveting hammers - Used to set solid rivets by hammering the rivet shank.
- Dollies - Steel bars that support the rivet tail during hammering. Different tip shapes for various rivet head profiles.
- Bucking bars - Support the workpiece behind the rivet when access is limited to one side.
- Rivet snaps/sets - Pliers-like tool for setting semi-tubular rivets.
Power Riveting Equipment
Powered riveting tools improve quality and productivity:
- Pneumatic rivet squeezers - Use air pressure to quickly set semi-tubular or structural rivets.
- Battery squeezers - Portable electric versions without the need for a compressed air line.
- Rivet presses - Motorized hydraulic or pneumatic presses for high volume production.
- Orbital riveting - Uses orbital shaking action to set solid rivets quickly.
Power tools improve set strength consistency and minimize operator fatigue. They are mandatory for large/hard-to-reach assemblies.
Riveted Joint Analysis
The strength of a properly designed riveted joint depends on:
- Shear strength of the rivet itself
- Bearing strength of the joined materials
- Tensile strength of the joined materials
Multiple rivets share and distribute load. Rivet shear and material bearing capacity limit the load per rivet. Tensile strength determines the total loaded joint capacity.
Inspection confirms all rivets have sufficient set height and no cracks. Dye penetrant testing can detect cracked rivets. Periodic testing of sample riveted coupons verifies required joint strength is achieved and maintained over time.
Benefits of Riveting
Some key advantages of rivets for sheet metal fabrication include:
- Reliable solid joints if properly designed and set
- Capability to join dissimilar or thin materials
- Minimal surface preparation compared to welding
- Low-cost, portable tooling for manual riveting
- Easy visual inspection of set rivets
- Vibration resistant and fatigue tolerant joints
- No heat-affected zone or distortion as with welding
Rivets remain a simple, efficient way to securely fasten sheet metal components in a wide range of industries and applications. Proper joint design, rivet selection, hole preparation, and setting procedure are key factors for success. CNC Milling CNC Machining